Atmosphere and ocean interaction
Ocean surface waves are important for a number of reasons; they need to be well modelled for shipping and wave energy, coastal management, but they also influence mass flux (aerosols and gases) and are thus important for carbon budgets in air and sea. In addition waves and air-sea interaction are crucial when modelling the climate system since they represent the boundary between the two dominating spheres (atmosphere and ocean). While developing an atmosphere-wave-ocean model we are introducing a correct response of the wave forcing of the atmosphere and ocean in contrast to assuming an average forcing based on an assumed mean state of the waves. Waves interact with the atmosphere and ocean in numerous ways. Here the focus is on the impact of waves on turbulence in the atmosphere and ocean (due to swell impact on mixing in the atmosphere and Langmuir turbulence in the ocean) and on the impact of swell waves on surface friction. These mechanisms have recently been shown by my group and others to act in a different way than previously expected and have significant impact in models due to the importance of secondary processes. We will use data from several experiments to cover a variety of wave conditions when developing improved parameterization. The coupling methodology is also being implemented in the global model EC-Earth.